La Leçon, by Eugène Ionesco

I have an odd memory of studying Eugène Ionesco’s La Leçon at school.

Why I say it’s odd, is that this contradicts another recollection I have, which is that, although I was taught French from the age of 7 to 16, never at any point did I actually study any French literature. This: because the only possible use my school could envisage for learning French, was to be able to use it while wandering around a town as a tourist, unable to locate specific buildings. If I’d known at the time that you could also use it to read literature, I’d have applied myself a bit more (and not given it up the moment I could – because I really didn’t like languages I had to speak, hence specialising in Latin and Greek).

Of course, La Leçon is also an ideal text to teach to school-children, so the memory remains plausible. For a start, it’s about school (or at least, it’s about a teacher and a pupil) and, at the same time, it’s completely absurd. It views all teaching and learning as complete nonsense, which no doubt fits in very well with the ideas of school-children. And it’s very amusing, at least to me as an adult (I imagine, as a school-child, I’d have been too cynical to find it at all funny). I particularly liked the Professor’s paradoxical belief that all languages are exactly the same. My favourite line in the whole play though is when the Professor says “C’est possible…” (I suppose it might help if I gave a bit more context. – Also, he says it about a cat, which usually prejudices me). – And also, of course, the French is very easy (in the main).

I have another recollection of watching a school production of Ubu Roi (though whether in French or not I don’t know), which seems now just as implausible. (Ionesco though is much, much better than Jarry. – I don’t think you even want my views on Jarry).



Books Read – April 2020

I’m still only halfway through The Decameron. What I appreciate about it is the fact that, in contrast to our modern attitude to plague (which is to go on about it all the time, and have government ads in every ad break to remind us of it), Boccaccio and his characters haven’t mentioned the plague at all in the last 470 pages. (It’s the ultimately irrelevant book).

The Castle of Crossed Destinies, by Italo Calvino

A terribly misconceived and tedious collection of short stories (or templates for short stories) of The Decameron variety, in which a group of people meet up and recount tales using tarot cards rather than speech.

The Baron in the Trees, by Italo Calvino

In contrast to the above, a marvellous tale about a boy who, after an altercation one day at the dinner-table, climbs up a tree in the back garden and refuses to come down again, leading to him living the rest of his life among the neighbourhood trees without ever once setting foot on the ground. (Part of Our Ancestors, a collection of fantastical tales which Calvino conceived on the wholly laudable basis of writing the kind of stories he’d like to have read himself).

A History of My Times, by Xenophon

A continuation of Thucydides’ The Peloponnesian War, though not in quality or even-handed insight. As the modern footnotes evidence, Xenophon is deeply partially (he barely mentions the two great Theban generals of the period, simply because he didn’t like them). He can also be tremendously tedious – though, since I didn’t really know much about this period of history, this was easy enough to overlook. Basically Sparta and Athens just continue fighting, and then the Thebans join in, until this time Sparta loses. For a bit someone called Jason of Pherae becomes all powerful, but just at the crucial moment he’s assassinated.

Enderby Outside / A Clockwork Testament, by Anthony Burgess

Parts 2 and 3 of Burgess’ Enderby. Part 2 is relatively uninteresting, bringing to the fore a contempt for popular culture and a more typical light comedy feel. The use of language remains impressive. Part 3 is more interesting: Enderby adapts GM Hopkins’ The Wreck of the Deutschland for the cinema (?), and it causes an outbreak of violence and is banned – i.e. a bit like A Clockwork Orange. In general, in fact, Enderby as a whole has similar themes to that more celebrated book (and also to Beckett) – man acts one way; society wishes him to act another. Also, its portrayal of a US university as a place of stifling political correctness seems remarkably up-to-date (but I suppose it’s more likely that that’s how it’s always been – or is perceived to be).

Waiting for Godot, by Samuel Beckett

I see Beckett’s theatre as derived from the music hall – the physical comedy thereof – a bit like say Morecombe and Wise (but funny). Beckett here discovers the essence of drama by adding a second tramp, who is more or less the same as his usual first tramp. The first half of the play is very enjoyable; the second seemed a tired rehash of the first, in which Beckett didn’t have any more dramatic ideas or anything further to say.

Life is a Dream, by Calderón

This play is based on my favourite story of all, The Sleeper Awakens. At first I found Calderón‘s treatment somewhat dull (though it’s certainly a strange play, to start with), but, once we get to the life-being-a-dream part, with Sigismundo’s view that reality should be considered nothing more than a dream, to which death will finally awaken us and, as in a dream, all we believed to be true and ours will be lost, it becomes very interesting. A very different type of drama though to what we’re used to – all long speeches, more in the vein of Seneca / Aischylos.

Due to lack of commuting time, my reading in French has slipped. Currently I’m reading (and greatly enjoying) Octave Mirbeau. He’s not quite what I was expecting – though easy enough to connect to some of my other favoured French writers.


Books Read – March 2020

My government has dictated that I stay home for a time, to read all the books I haven’t read.

I started reading Boccaccio’s The Decameron, to imagine what it would be like if I had to distract myself from a plague ravaging the cities and the countryside. I’ll just say for now, it’s odd to begin a book with the least interesting of the stories – though, in keeping with a Chaucerian verisimilitude, I guess appropriate, since the narrators didn’t have much time to think them up, whereas by day 2 they’d had a whole extra day.

Blindness, by José Saramago

I was bought this for Christmas, presumably in foreknowledge of what was to come. The plague in Saramago’s book affects more or less everybody, and certainly brings about a quicker dissolution of society, plunging us straight into familiarly apocalyptic territory. Despite the subject matter, Saramago succeeds as usual in making this as boring as possible for the reader. I’ve tried 3 books by Saramago now, and not succeeded with any. Yes, it’s true: I haven’t finished this: – I’ve read about 230 pages out of 300, and cannot foresee a time when I’ll possess the moral fortitude to force myself to read the rest. I will assume they all die.

The Fall of the Roman Empire, by Peter Heather

(My specialist area at university). Unlike say Adrian Goldsworthy (whose books on the ancient world seem to proliferate exponentially), Peter Heather is a serious scholar of the period – and well worth reading. This is a fairly straight-forward narrative history, without too many tedious longueurs. As always with the fall of the Roman Empire, the question is why. Heather’s answer is: it was the Germans, stupid! He constructs a highly plausible and well-argued narrative – and in many ways that’s my reservation: because though he does his best to conceal it, the evidence for saying anything about this period is scant, and one discovery will throw all into doubt. (e.g. AHM Jones’ view on the economic decline of later Roman agriculture is here dismissed by some later archaeological surveys – published soon after – that there was no such decline). Obviously it wouldn’t have happened without the peoples on the other side of the Rhine and Danube, but I feel Heather wants to emphasise this too much against, say, the internal divisions of the Roman Empire (instability of regime / incessant civil wars, which he’s always dismissing with little real argument). (Heather made his reputation studying the Goths, so he has an interest in granting them and their barbarians friends a great significance). – I picked up a lot of books in this area recently, so will be exploring a bit more.

Arsène Lupin, gentleman-cambrioleur, by Maurice Leblanc

An interesting exercise in how the author can fool the reader (this reader) by using exactly the same trick over and over again. The master-thief Lupin steals stuff, generally after forewarning his victims that he’s going to do it – because otherwise it would be too easy, wouldn’t it.

Enderby, by Anthony Burgess

Like William Golding last month, I once read a lot of Anthony Burgess, but I haven’t read any for a long time. In my memory, Earthly Powers and The End of the News of the World, stand out, although I have the impression the quality of his works is mixed. Enderby is a short novel, the first in a trilogy (although I’m pretty sure there’s at least a fourth novel), about a little-recognised poet, who is rescued from poverty (unlikelyly) by a socialite, who tries to reform him, but he fears as a consequence that he’s losing his muse. It is very much then of the genre (like say Canetti’s Auto da Fé) of: the man who thinks getting married would be a good idea, but discovers that it is the destruction of the totality of his being. – Despite being set in mid-c20th England (anywhere between 40s – 70s is usually enough to put Obooki off), I greatly enjoyed this. The language is so rich, it is a physical pleasure to read: – it’s like a superior version of Nabokov, but a Nabokov with, you know, humanity and a congenial humour. I should find bits to quote; but you might as well just read it yourself. Just find a copy in a bookshop and read the opening scene. I’ll be reading more soon anyway (the next 2 books of this trilogy for a start; and my father has a lot of Burgess – though for some reason I’m not allowed to visit him at the moment).

René Leys, by Victor Segalen

I tried reading a book by Victor Segalen a while ago called Paintings, but it was one of those books which seemed deliberately written (like, say, Sartor Resartus) to appeal to as few readers as possible. My recollection is that it was just descriptions of paintings. René Leys, on the other hand, is reasonably a novel: our narrator is living in Beijing, and is fascinated by Chinese culture and the mysteries of the forbidden city; when he encounters a young Belgian by the name of René Leys, who seems to have obtained an unusual access to the higher echelons of Chinese society – and yet, with all his tales of spying and murderous plots, perhaps he isn’t all he seems. (A man fascinated and perplexed by the incomprehensible society in which he finds himself – I’m sure it should remind me of something else. But perhaps this was written before that). The end chronicles the fall of the Manchu dynasty, amid the rise of Sun Yat-Sen and the coming revolutions.

The Book of Nights, by Sylvie Germain

A magic realist family saga, about a water-dwelling people who gradually become land-dwellers. My main recollection is that there’s a lot of death throughout. I’ve got the second book too, but I’m not that enthused about reading it.

Anecdotes of Destiny, by Isak Dinesen

I’ve read all these before, and two have been made into films: the dullest story in the collection, Babette’s Feast, and the best, The Immortal Story (well, it was filmed for French TV by Orson Welles – well worth checking out! – Welles was a big Dinesen fan, and the plan was to make a whole series, but like many of Welles’ projects, it fell through). Dinesen is one of the breed of master story-tellers, in the 1,001 Nights / Decameron vein, though usually more subtle and complexly structured. Just a pleasure to read: The Immortal Story and Tempests are particularly good here.

Swann’s Way, by Marcel Proust

I enjoyed the scene-setting at Combray, and Swann’s obsessive jealousy (it makes me so angry he’s in love with Odette / why doesn’t he see sense?), less so all the stuff about the Verdurins’ and society in general. (Yeah, that’s my review. Can’t think of anything else).







Books Read – February 2020

I reread the third last section of Joyce’s Ulysses. – My previous reading of Ulysses was a largely negative experience, since long sections of the book are extremely tedious. This left me thinking, maybe it might be a novel better appreciated by reading only the less boring sections completely at random. (I still feel though, that novelist should at least try not putting boring sections in their novels in the first place. Which reminds of another book I read whilst not blogging: Georges Perec’s Life: A User’s Manual). Anyhow, I rather enjoyed this section of Ulysses. This is the part after the Nighttown episode, where Bloom and Stephen Dedalus wander through the empty Dublin streets and end up at a café, where they listen to the various tales of the patrons. It’s mostly told from Bloom’s point of view, and for once the stream of consciousness is relatively integrated into the “action”, so we can understand what Bloom is on about. Stephen Dedalus’ tiresome thoughts and opinions are kept to a minimum. – Joyce then follows this up with the second last section, whose main intent as far as I can see, is to prevent any but the most dedicated reader ever reaching the end.

Privy Seal, by Ford Madox Ford

The middle book in Ford’s The Fifth Queen trilogy. For the most part, I forgot the action of the first part (which I read probably a few years ago now); all that remained was the impression conveyed by Ford of how dangerous life was back in the days of Henry VIII, particularly to anyone who aspired to a position of status. The whole book is pervaded by an atmosphere of fear. – I actually enjoyed this second instalment more. Ford adopts an odd style, in order to capture the time, especially in character’s speech (e.g. using an for if) – which is actually quite effective, though I imagine not entirely historically accurate. In fact, I’m not sure much about the book is historically inaccurate – Katherine Howard was certainly not the paragon of virtue she’s portrayed (or so they say) – but none of this is of any consequence.

(The theme for this month was novellas / short novels).

Tonio Kröger by Thomas Mann

I read this a long long time ago, and enjoyed it at the time, though I remember nothing about it. This time around, I wonder what I saw in it (perhaps I saw myself). It’s a story about a writer (always a bad start), and its purpose is to demonstrate that writers are fundamentally deformed members of society – to be contrasted with that happy, heedless multitude, who go through life without having recourse to writing. Anyway, the woman Tonio Kröger loves marries someone else, so he amuses himself (but not us) with long discussions about art. There’s a quotation in this novel about bohemian/bourgeois which I’ve been using myself for many years, but which I’d always attributed to von Ashenbach from Death in Venice. – Mann (perhaps like Tonio Kröger) has always struck me as being far too bourgeois ever to be a truly interesting writer.

The Scorpion God, by William Golding

Once upon a time I read almost all of William Golding, but I’ve not picked up one of his books in the last ten years. The Scorpion God was one of two I hadn’t read before. It’s actually three wholly unconnected novellas – save, I suppose, that they’re all historical (Roman Egypt, Egyptian Egypt and pre-Historic Africa respectively). I’m reminded how much Golding is interested in portraying cultures (states of mind) far removed from our own culture, even though they do at times – in their dialogue – seem to slip into mid-20th century English middle-classness. I think it’s time I revisited Golding’s work more generally. He’s become a bit forgotten since his death (aside from Lord of the Flies obviously), which seems undeserved.

Children of the Albatross, by Anais Nin

Struggling with Ladders of Fire – the first volume of this 5-volume Cities of the Interior series – I skipped over it, and read this instead. The trouble with Ladders of Fire is that it reads more like a proposition for a novel than a novel itself. Anais Nin has certainly absorbed the old adage: – tell, don’t show. – And it’s not that Children of the Albatross is any different in this respect; maybe it’s just more concerned with a single clear story: girl loves boy. In this instance, girl is a young but experienced denizen of the artistic demi-monde, and boy is a naïve would-be artist, escaping from strict parental control. Interesting enough but, due to the writing style, lacking in any drama.

Contes à Ninon, by Emile Zola

Typical work by the unrealistic fantasist Emile Zola. Zola recalls childhood tales he used to relate to his friend Ninon (supposedly). I only remember now the last one (which I seem to have been reading for most of the month) about Sidonie and Médéric (a giant and a dwarf) who have various crazy adventures. (I may steal some of this for a story of my own; – I’m sure no one in the English-speaking world will notice anyway). I found it all very amusing.

Books Read – January 2020

Poor Things by Alasdair Gray

Since he died recently, I thought I’d revisit Alasdair Gray’s work. Many years ago now, I read 1982 Janine, which I enjoyed, mostly I think for its depiction of how boys in our society are repressed into a masculine indifference to feeling and emotion (a favourite theme of Obooki’s) – though often in summaries of Gray’s work, you’ll find the book referred to (dismissed) as pornographic. Since then I’ve read a few of his other books (Something Leather, Kelvin Walker, the beginning of Lanark), which have not measured up to my initial impression, and disinclined me to read further. – And I’m not sure Poor Things has changed my opinion: basically a Frankenstein story, it gives Gray scope to rant on about socialism and Scottish nationalism (or at least his hatred of the English – although perhaps not quite as strongly here as in other novels). It’s entertaining enough, I guess. (The footnotes contain a poem by “Kipling”, which fails to deceive for 2 reasons: 1) it doesn’t scan properly (a curse of the prose writer turning to poetry); and 2) the views put forward about empire are not Kipling’s, but Gray’s).

An Explanation of the Birds, by António Lobo Antunes

I read half of this several years ago, and this month read the other half, without any attempt at reminding myself of what had happened before. It appears to be a story of a man on holiday with his girlfriend, who intends to split up with her and ultimately commit suicide because of the failure of this and past relationships. The story is told in part as the random reminiscences of his acquaintances when confronted by his suicide, all mixed up together with the on-going narrative in meandering sentences as is Lobo Antunes’ way. My impression – which is my general impression of Lobo Antunes – is that his wonderful style is somewhat let down by his uninteresting subject matter – hence, no doubt, the reason why I stopped reading it a few years ago.

Contes Français, by Various

A collection of c19th French short stories, the best of which was (er) Pushkin’s The Duel. I remember reading all Pushkin’s short stories once, but curiously don’t remember this, which has to be the best duel story of all (though I guess I should re-read Lermontov). Now I look closer at the table of contents, it was included because it was a translation by Mérimée (?): – all the other stories were of French origin (Balzac’s was probably the next best – though typically unBalzacian), including some writers (Erckmann-Chatrian, Coppée) I wasn’t previously familiar with.

The Land at the End of the World, by António Lobo Antunes

Even though I knew I had another copy of this book under another title and I’d already read it, I still went ahead and bought it and read it again. Luckily I don’t really remember much that I read: – only having the impression while reading that I’d read a book before by him in which a man recounted his experiences in the Angolan war while sitting in a bar chatting up a woman. The book is a denunciation of the Portuguese involvement in Angola, and the Salazar government generally. Enjoyable enough if you like dense, meandering sentences – and particularly if you also like your books to contain at least one metaphor per line.

A Dream of Something, by Pier Paolo Pasolini

Pasolini’s one of my favourite film directors, but I’d not read any of his literary works. This is a novel about young men coming of age in Pasolini’s native Friuli, and is a reasonable instance of the genre.  The latter half of the novel is almost entirely to do with socialist insurrection and unemployed workers’ demand for jobs.

Robinson Crusoe, by Daniel Defoe

I started reading this last year due to some Defoe anniversary, and because there was a copy at my father’s house and I had a lot of time to kill. If I hadn’t had a lot of time, I imagine I’d have given up, since it isn’t always the most interesting narrative. I remember giving up pretty quickly on Journal of the Plague Year; and it strikes me in general that Defoe wrote the kind of books which would actually be more interesting if they were factual – i.e. merely knowing Journal of the Plague Year is fictional makes it even more boring than if it wasn’t. A few things interested me about Crusoe: his occasional relative morality (that it was just his Christian paradigm which made him think cannibalism was wrong, but really he shouldn’t be judging the cannibals by his own moral standards); and the fact that he only turns from his sinful life to Christianity because he ends up on a desert island (though I don’t think this is Defoe’s point).

I also read Beaumont & Fletcher The Maid’s Tragedy, which was very good – at least for the first 4 acts, before it descended in traditional tragedy fashion into the unlikely death of every single character. There’s a nice emotional set-up, which – unusually for ex-Shakespearian Jacobean tragedy – is reasonably psychologically. (I was driven to read it – I already had the text – after coming across a comment in the introduction to The Mock-Tempest – a re-working (?) of the Shakespeare play – largely about the beginnings of Restoration theatre, about how the underrated Beaumont & Fletcher were very popular at this time).

Sanctuary, by William Faulkner

I wrote this post ages ago, but never posted it. I had more to say, especially about Faulkner’s treatment of women in the novel, and its connection with other Faulkner novels: the character of Temple appears in other guises in The Sound and the Fury, As I Lay Dying and Light in August (just here a bit more extreme). I also read Light in August after this, but it was too long ago now. Maybe Absalom, Absalom! next, or the Snopes trilogy.

Once he’d finished The Sound and The Fury, Faulkner decided to try writing a book that might actually be popular and make him some money, so he wrote the first draft of Sanctuary and sent it off to his publisher, who replied, “Good God. I can’t publish this. We’d both be in jail.” so Faulkner laid it aside and wrote As I Lay Dying instead and published that; and only afterwards did his publisher return to the idea of Sanctuary and suggest maybe they should publish it after all; – but by then Faulkner had his own reservations and decided it needed revision.

It turns out what Faulkner thought might be more popular is something between The Texas Chainsaw Massacre and Blue Velvet; – and, since in three months it outsold all his previous book put together, it seems this wasn’t a bad summation of his public’s taste. What his revisions from the first version were I’m not entirely sure (maybe, like with Sartoris, he merely cut out lots of tedious bits to do with Horace Benbow, and kept in all the more salacious material), because it is still quite extreme – and indeed, caused consternation among Faulkner’s fellow townsmen, who weren’t exactly pleased with his portrayal of them.

Sanctuary was the second Faulkner novel I ever read, and again I don’t think at the time I was very impressed by it. I also don’t remember too much about it; but what I do remember is that I was very confused reading it and felt I hadn’t taken the time and effort properly to understand it (I was a bad reader even back then). For a long time after I associated this vague state incomprehension with reading Faulkner, and conceived the notion that you really had to pay attention with him, particularly at the beginning; but reading it again, I do wonder partly at my confusion. For Sanctuary is a move away stylistically from anything before in Faulkner’s writing, and in particular the point-of-view experimentation of the previous two novels (I will note again, As I Lay Dying was really written after Sanctuary). Gone too are the long meandering sentences. The entire novel is written instead in simple sentences and in the third person, with only the occasional (usually descriptive passage) where Faulkner seems to forget this and drifts off into the baroque. Indeed, I think the novel is essentially intended as a sort of mass-market thriller. Where I do sympathise with my earlier self is in the central scene in Sanctuary – the rape of the character Temple – which is described so vaguely, and is so apparently contradictory to later elements of the story, that I was left bewildered as to what had actually happened – particularly by the time of the legal scene towards the end, and any sort of understanding of the character’s motivation at this point. In the end I had to resort to sources outside the text. It may be that this isn’t entirely Faulkner’s fault; perhaps he wouldn’t have been able to publish a clearer description of events (rather like my reading of Effi Brest, where I only realise there had been a sex scene about 100 pages afterwards, because otherwise nothing makes sense); – but in reality, let’s face it, it is just Faulkner being cryptic.

Based no doubt on its success, this was the first Faulkner novel to be made into the movie; and I’d kind of like to see what they made of it. The issue is not merely the material, but the outcome. If you’re accustomed to your thrillers turning out with the truth coming out and the guilty being found guilty, then you’re not exactly going to be too gratified with Sanctuary; for in Sanctuary truth is subordinate to the prejudice of society. In particular, the atypical reaction of the character Temple to being raped, and how she subsequently conducts herself, is far from what I – or most people – would expect; but on the other hand, people don’t always react in the way that is set down for them. The power of Southern society to force people to act in the way they do and not as their own personal morality dictates seems to me one of the main motive forces in Faulkner’s writing. This again is seen in the town’s reaction (and particularly his sister’s) to Horace Benbow’s willingness to defend the accused and to help his wife. Which is all to say, there’s a lot of similarities really between this novel and To Kill a Mockingbird; but Sanctuary is never going to be held up as a great moral novel and taught in schools.

If you’re wondering whether there’s a Snopes in the novel: well yes there is; he is a corrupt senator and appears in a series of comic scenes involving two yokels who move to the city and end up renting a room inside a bordello without realising it is a bordello – scenes which, frankly, have very little connection with the rest of the novel, and just seem to be an amusing idea Faulkner came up with and thought he’d stick in.

So relatively uninteresting then in literary terms, but fascinating in terms of Faulkner’s vision of the South and human inter-relations.

Books Read – July 2018

After a long break from blogging, I thought I’d try another style in the hope of keeping it going: somewhere between longer individual reviews and my long-lost mini-reviews. (I’ll fill in some of the books I’ve read in the interim at some point).

The Girls, by Henri de Montherlant

(That is, volume 1, called The Girls, of the tetrology called The Girls). I’d read this before, but thought I’d better refresh my memory of it in preparation for the other three books. My edition claims it is notorious for its misogyny: – perhaps, in parts; I can certainly see how women might find sections of it annoying, at the very least; – I myself didn’t particularly enjoy the more theoretical parts (essentially, if I recall, that men aren’t interested in long-term relationships, whereas that’s all women ever think about); – but the basic core of the story is one that always fascinates me – something strangely rare in novels, though common enough in life: – unrequited love – at least, unrequited love from the point of view of the one doing the unrequiting. In this case, a famous author (no doubt, entirely different from Montherlant himself), is plagued by women who have read his books and believe that he is just the man they are looking for. The author, however, feels nothing for these women – except a terrible pity, which prevents him from properly confronting them about their delusions; – and even when he does attempt to confront them, finding they are endlessly capable of maintaining that delusion whatever he says to them. The second volume is called Pity for Women, so I’m imagining it’s much of the same.

The Rise and Fall of the House of Medici, by Christopher Hibbert

A readable account of how the Medici took control of Florence, dominated it for a time, and went on to patronise almost every artist you’ve heard of from the Renaissance. It re-inspired me at least to read more of the books I have about that period.

Knulp, by Hermann Hesse

In the first two parts of this book, I was struck by a similarity with Samuel Beckett: a man lives life as an eternal wanderer, refusing to get on or conform as others would have him; – but the last part Beckett would never have written, where he confronts the reasons behind his attitude to life, all caught up in a moment from his adolescence when he was betrayed in his naïve vision of the world and learnt never to put his trust in others.

Barabbas, by Par Lagerkvist

I read The Dwarf recently too, and there are a lot of similarities between that and this book. Again Lagerkvist chooses as his hero a despised outsider, though Barabbas isn’t quite as extreme as The Dwarf in his attitude towards the rest of humanity. Having witnessed Christ die in his place, he becomes fascinated by the early Christians, but while perhaps wanting to believe and join them, cannot ultimately overcome his sceptism and his ingrained belief that he is an outcast whom no one will accept. I find Lagerkvist’s obsessions interesting – but I don’t think there’s much more of his in English (one more book maybe).

Bid Me To Live, by H.D.

The only other book I’ve read by H.D., Her, I remember as one of the hardest reading experiences of my life, written in a painfully difficult and obscure manner but, unlike most such works, actually worthwhile persevering with. Bid Me To Live is much easier-going (I read it in about a day): a fictionalised autobiography (of the sort that was seemingly invented in the 2010s, according to current literary criticism) recounting her life, largely in London, during the First World War, centred around a kind of alternative Bloomsbury set – the disintegration of her marriage to Richard Adlington (whose hatchet job on Lawrence of Arabia I have somewhere) and her friendship (but not sexual relationship) with D.H. Lawrence (who is the one who bids her to live, and then comes over all prudish when she decides to run off and live in sin with one of his friends).

Cosima, by Grazia Deledda

Another fictionalised autobiography, this time perhaps a little disappointing in comparison to the other fiction of hers I’ve read. I preferred those aspects which depicted her growing up in Sardinia and the lives of the people there; what rang kind of hollow were the sections about her escaping all this by becoming a writer, which all seemed far too easy and unlikely.

The Modern Husband, by Henry Fielding

I never managed to get far through Tom Jones, finding it incredibly tedious, but luckily Fielding wrote lots of plays which by their nature are much shorter. These plays split into two categories: satires and comedies. This is a comedy – and in dramatic terms, not a particularly good one – of the typical Restoration variety: – some men love some women and at the same time require some money. What marks it out is its portrait of a society where men essentially prostitute their wives for the sake of wealth and preferment, while those who have wealth and position ruthlessly exploit both the men and their wives for their own gratification (as usual with Fielding, the villain is apparently based on Walpole). One is naturally disappointed by an ending where virtue yet again succeeds improbably against the entire essence of the play and its social setting.

The Gentleman Dancing-Master, by William Wycherley

A much better Restoration comedy than the above – better written, better structured – though far less interesting in terms of social comment. It has a lot of foreign stereotypes in it. If you’re French, for instance, you probably wouldn’t appreciate it much, but the character of Monsieur, an Englishman who is pretending to be a Frenchman, because French things are fashionable, by misprouncing English words and misconstructing English sentences, is an extraordinary comic idea, and provides much of the best humour. (There is also a Spaniard who is purely obsessed about his honour).

The Eumenides, by Aeschylos

I read this again (purely because I picked up a Loeb edition: – I read it in English, with the occasional glance at some of the Greek terms), my main interest being: what the hell is this play about (given that it’s not about the shift from a barbaric system of bloodfeud to a civilised idea of murder trials, as textbooks would have you believe)? – I’m not sure I reached any great conclusions this time either. – Orestes claims he does not come to Delphi as a suppliant; that he has already been cleansed of his crime in that respect; but he is still pursued by Furies. I find myself reading this as that rationally he has convinced himself he is not guilty of the murder of his mother, but that he is still nonetheless possessed by guilt for what he has done. The Furies, as they say, pursue people for crimes which are inexpiable; essentially they will hound him to death (from which point Hades will take over). The younger gods (Apollo, Athena) seek to expiate him of his inexpiable crime, and succeed in doing so (though on a 50/50 ballot, with Athena having the casting vote) by means of a trial of sorts, whose conclusion is that women don’t really count anyway. The rest of the play attempts to provide an identification of the Furies with the Sacred Goddesses who lived near the Areopagos in Athens and shared a few of the same characteristics. (People in the Ancient World seemed to like that kind of aetiology quite a lot). – The two other plays I connect this with in particular are Sophocles’ Ajax and Oedipos in Colonos, which again are both about guilt born out of terrible crime, for which Ajax is cleared by the society around him (and religiously cleansed) but still cannot live with himself, while Oedipos – well, whatever happens in that play. But these three plays share in the essential core of Greek tragedy: that someone is destroyed by guilt over something for which they are not truly responsible. – Also, having watched a film called Absolution the other day (based on a Peter Schaffer play), in which a Catholic psychopath confesses a murder to a priest, who is driven mad because he is bound by the oath of confession and cannot tell anyone (the plot is in fact far sillier than that), I wonder about the parallel between the concept of cleansing in Greek religion (catharsis), and the concept of confession and the absolution of sins in Catholicism – and, not being religious and finding it easy to connect the concept of God with conscience, whether all these matters are about an attempt to square the inexpiable with oneself. (All this shall be worked into the novella I’m writing about Orestes). – Other people will tell you that the Greeks had no real concept of guilt, that seeing the Furies in psychological terms is an error of modernity, and that Greek and Christian religions in fact have very little in common; – and they are entitled to the wrong opinions. I’m of the belief that the experience of being human is much the same in all societies – only the superficialities change.

(If I continue to struggle as much as I did today even to get this posted I might have to give up blogging again. I may have to write all future reviews on my phone, because it’s the only device I have left that seems capable of connecting to the internet).