Reference Failure

I was going to write a long and complex article about reference failure and the obstacles it places on any attempt at verisimilitude in stream-of-consciousness narrative; but I thought we’d have a quiz instead. What’s this eight-year old describing in the following passage:

That and that is that and that because there it is for the water to run through, and that you see them inside because the water can’t run out. The water is there and cannot run.

(And don’t just look it up on the internet!) If anyone does guess it, I shall assume I’m mistaken in my assumption that reference failure is a problem for narrative at all, and my next novel will be entirely recounted in this fashion by an eight-year old child.


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